artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a component found in most software, even if it is not recognizable. Artificial intelligence can extend to the thinking computer as well as the future autonomous robot.

Artificial intelligence means exploring “intelligent” problem-solving behavior and the creation of “intelligent” computer systems. Artificial intelligence is already an integral part of most software. In general, Artificial Intelligence tries to recreate decision-making structures similar to humans in a not clearly defined environment. It looks for methods that enable a computer to solve tasks so that they require intelligence if they are to be solved by humans.

Artificial Intelligence Then And Now

In the early to mid-1950s, Artificial Intelligence began in the United States. At this point, M. Minsky, J. McCarthy, A. Newell, HA Simon spoke of artificial intelligence at a scientific conference in Dartmouth.

Marvin Minsky, the founding father of Artificial Intelligence, is often quoted with his definition. His statement about artificial intelligence from 1966 read: “Artificial intelligence is the science of making machines do things that would require intelligence if done by men.” to accomplish which the intelligence of men needs. “

The so-called “Turing Test” also played a central role in determining artificial intelligence. The test was developed by the British mathematician Alan Turing in the early 1950s. This test was intended to ensure that a person could communicate synchronously with a machine and other people via a chat program.

Nowadays, artificial intelligence is based on the processing of enormous amounts of data (big data). In the most modern form of artificial intelligence, neural networks are used, and self-learning systems in machine learning are also developed.

There is a close connection with the further development of artificial intelligence with “neural networks” and the technology “deep learning.”

The Different Methods And Applications Of Artificial Intelligence

There are various methods and applications in artificial intelligence, with the following method areas, the special requirements, deduction systems, automatic programming, the understanding of natural language, computer vision and robotics, the method area of ​​learning, support in the area of ​​education ( Intelligent Computer-Aided Instruction) and the heuristic search are explained in more detail.

In the method areas of Artificial Intelligence (AI), the most critical regions are the representation of knowledge and the effective use of the knowledge presented.

The special requirements for the linguistic means of expression to create the Artificial Intelligence (AI) programs, especially the necessary symbol processing, require particular (AI) programming languages.

These offer access to certain forms of knowledge representations and enable knowledge evaluation, such as built-in inference methods.

Artificial intelligence also includes the employment of “automatic proofs” for mathematical theorems, which are linked to the application area of ​​deduction systems. The aim of the deduction systems developed is to enable the database systems to be queried. The database systems, in turn, are based on the relationship model so that they are responsible for the backward database queries.

There is also a connection to the inference systems for automatic programming. Verification of the programs using the inference system can also be carried out automatically based on formal specifications. Automatic programming also includes creating executable programs from standard specifications and clear evidence of hardware components such as integrated circuits and hardware.

The methods of using natural language and language processing are also part of Artificial Intelligence. Among other things, the results of linguistics are used here, for example, from syntax theory. In addition to speech analysis, speech recognition is one of the central tasks within this area.

The more advanced artificial intelligence technologies such as computer vision and robotics are mainly concerned with the data interpretation of the natural physical environment.

Computer vision is a program that deals with image understanding, such as gray value analysis and scene analysis, which includes the recognition of geometric objects from line drawings and the perception of shapes. In principle, the focus of computer vision is describing the meaning of the content of a scene, which is done, for example, by building a semantic network.

To create a recognition of the objects, computer vision in robotics is used. In this classic area of ​​application, planning and controlling robot actions play a significant role.

The focus of the method areas of learning and the cognitive models are the peculiarities of human intelligence. The mental models achieve the creation of computer programs that create a simulation of human problem-solving behavior. The area of ​​learning is about methods that should enable computer programs to function based on existing knowledge and to ensure an expansion of knowledge by evaluating already known problems and their solutions.

While learning should concentrate on the transfer of the human ability to learn to the computer, the ICAI (Intelligent Computer-Aided Instruction) area of ​​application aims to help people with the learning process, particularly pedagogical knowledge.

The last important branch of artificial intelligence is heuristic search. This is a method area that comes from the initial attempts at Artificial Intelligence (AI). The heuristic search here revolves around the problem of developing game programs, such as the search for “good” moves. The search areas are narrowed down using heuristics so that the corresponding game situations can be researched faster and better. And precisely because of the variety of possible combinations, the number of possible activities can quickly explode.


A well-known example of artificial intelligence is the Prolog programming language, an abbreviation for logical programming. In business, for example, artificial intelligence is used in Google’s RankBrain algorithm. Furthermore, Siri from Apple or Alexa from Amazon is artificial intelligence.



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